Christmas Truce because of the Christmas Song Silent Night

In 1818, Christmas Eve the carol “Stille Nacht! Heilige Nacht” was heard for the first time in a town church in Oberndorf, Austria.

The congregation at that Midnight Mass in St. Nicholas Church listened as the voices of the assistant pastor, Father Joseph Mohr, and the choir director, Franz Xaver Gruber, sounded through the church to the accompaniment of Father Mohr’s guitar. On each of the 6 verses, the choir repeated the last 2 lines in four-part harmony. On that Christmas Eve, a song was born that would wing its method into the hearts of people throughout the world. Now equated into hundreds of languages, it is sung by untold millions every December from small chapels in the Andes to excellent cathedrals in Antwerp and Rome.

Though suggested for an efficiency in a church Silent Night was made up for guitar. That is rather unusual for those days. Joseph Mohr’s guitar (right) still can be seen at Hallein’s Franz Gruber Museum

Some fanciful tales. Today books, movies and Internet websites are filled with fanciful tales purporting to tell the history of “Silent Night.” Some tell of mice consuming the bellows of the organ creating the necessity for a hymn to be accompanied by a guitar. Others claim that Joseph Mohr was forced to write the words to a new carol in haste because the organ would not play. A recent movie, developed for Austrian television locations Oberndorf in the Alps and consists of evil railroad barons and a double-dealing priest, while a current book by a German author places a zither in the hands of Franz Gruber and links Joseph Mohr with a tragic fire engulfing the city of Salzburg. You can check out claims that “Silent Night” was sung on Christmas Eve in 1818 then forgotten by its developers. Obviously, the latter are easily marked down by manuscript arrangements of the carol by both Mohr and Gruber which were produced at different times in between 1820 and 1855. In this age of tabloid journalism, it’s not surprising that some feel it necessary to invent unimportant anecdotes and produce fables for a story that is quite lovely in its simpleness.

A young priest in Mariapfarr. The German words for the original 6 stanzas of the carol we know as “Silent Night” were composed by Joseph Mohr in 1816, when he was a young priest appointed to an expedition church in Mariapfarr, Austria. His grandpa lived close by, and it is simple to think of that he might have come up with the lyrics while walking through the countryside on a check out to his senior relative. The reality is, we have no concept if any particular event inspired Joseph Mohr to pen his poetic variation of the birth of the Christ child. The world is lucky, however, that he didn’t leave it behind when he was moved to Oberndorf the following year (1817).

Franz Gruber. On December 24, 1818 Joseph Mohr journeyed to the house of musician-schoolteacher Franz Gruber who resided in a house over the schoolhouse in close-by Arnsdorf. He revealed his good friend the poem and asked him to include a melody and guitar harmony so that it could be sung at Midnight Mass.

His reason for desiring the new carol is still not known. Some theorize that the organ would not work, but others feel that the assistant pastor, who a lot loved guitar music, merely desired a new carol for Christmas.

1942: Second Fight of El Alamein

What happened to 1942: Second Fight of El Alamein

This battle marked the turning point in the North African project. The only terrific tank battle won by the British Commonwealth forces without direct American involvement. However, an American presence was most felt by 300 Sherman tanks (for a total of 547 tanks) shipped quickly to Egypt from the United States.

Fought from October 23 to November 1942, it pitted the precise and dependable Gen. Bernard Montgomery and his team against those of Erwin Rommel, the cunning Desert Fox. Sadly for the Germans, however, Rommel was exceptionally ill, and he was required to pull away to a German medical facility before the battle broke out. Adding fuel to the fire, his short-term fill in, General Georg von Stumme, died of a cardiovascular disease during the fight. The Germans were also troubled by supply problems, especially fuel lacks. It was a recipe for catastrophe.

Montgomery’s reorganized 8th Army introduced a two-pronged attack. The very first phase, Operation Lightfoot, included a powerful artillery bombardment followed by an infantry attack. During the 2nd phase, the infantry cleared the way for the armored divisions. Rommel, who returned to task in desperation, recognized all was lost and cabled Hitler appropriately. Both the German and British armies lost about 500 tanks, but the Allied soldiers failed to take the effort after the success, permitting the Germans sufficient time for retreat.

However the triumph was protected, prompting Winston Churchill to declare: “This is not the end, it is not even the start of completion. However, it is, perhaps, the end of the beginning.”

IRAQ War Lesson

Remembering the most importamt IRAQ War Lesson

March 2012 marks the 14th anniversary of the United States intrusion of Iraq. Despite your views on the knowledge of that choice, it’s reasonable to state that the outcomes were not exactly what many Americans anticipated. Now that the war is formally over fourteen years ago and many US forces have withdrawn. What lessons do Americans (and others) draw from the experience? There are numerous lessons that a person may discover, however we have the best Lesson from the Iraq War.

REMARKS: 1.7 Trillion Dollars LOST.

Best Lesson Learned: The United States lost. The very first and crucial lesson of Iraq war is that we didn’t win in any significant sense of that term. The supposed function of the war was removing Saddam Hussein’s weapons of mass destruction. However, it ends up he didn’t have any. Oops. Then the reasoning moved to developing a pro-American democracy, however, Iraq today is at finest a quasi-democracy and far from pro-American. The damage of Iraq enhanced Iran’s position in the Persian Gulf– which is barely something the United States planned– and the expenses of the war (quickly going beyond 1.7 trillion dollars) are much larger than U.S. leaders expected or assured. The war was likewise a massive diversion, which diverted the Bush administration from other concerns and made the United States much less popular worldwide.

This lesson is necessary since fans of the war are currently marketing a revisionist variation. In this counternarrative, the 2007 rise was a big success (it wasn’t since it cannot produce political settlement) and Iraq is now on the road to steady and flourishing democracy. And the expenses weren’t truly that bad. Another version of this misconception is the concept that President George W. Bush and Gen. David Petraeus had actually “won” the war by 2008. However, President Obama then lost it by going out early. This view overlooks that the Bush administration worked out the 2008 Status of Forces contract that set the schedule for U.S. withdrawal, and Obama could not remain in Iraq once the Iraqi federal government made it clear it desired us out.

Is the False Story clear?

The threat of this false story is apparent: If Americans pertain to see the war as a success– which it plainly wasn’t–, they might continue to pay attention to the recommendations of its supporters and be more likely to duplicate comparable errors in the future.

Related video about IRAQ WAR LESSONS you can watch here:

What is The Fu-Go Balloon Bomb?

It’s the Westerners who are remembered for developing some of the most innovative and conceptual weapons of the Second World War. But when it concerned experimental military innovations, Japan suffered from no shortage of ideas. Here is the main Bomb you should know, The Fu-Go Balloon Bomb

As the Nazis were lobbying V2 rockets over the English Channel, the Japanese were making their own “revenge weapons” too. Military organizers, who were not able to develop an intercontinental missile, rather established the principle of balloon bombs.

MXY-7 Okha Suicide Assailant

(Photo via US Army)

To make it work, the Japanese connected incendiary bombs to balls which traveled 5,000 miles to the United States along the jet stream. The goal was to have the gadgets remove over the forested areas of the Pacific Northwest and start big forest fires that would divert significant U.S. labor force.

Geologist and historian J. David Rogers discuss how they worked:

The balloons were made from paper of a mulberry, glued with potato flour and filled with comprehensive hydrogen. They were 33 feet in size and may raise approximately 1,000 pounds. Nevertheless, the deadly part of their freight was a 33-lb anti-personnel fragmentation bomb, linked to a 64– foot long fuse that was prepared to burn for 82 minutes before detonating. The Japanese set the balloons to introduce hydrogen if they rose to over 38,000 feet and to drop sets of sand filled ballast bags if the balloon fell listed below 30,000 feet, utilizing an altimeter. 3 dozen sand-filled ballast bags were hung from a 4-spoke aluminum wheel that was suspended below the balloon, together with the bomb. Each ballast bag weighed in between 3 and 7 pounds. The bags were set up to be launched against the opposite sides of the wheel, so that the balloon would not be tipped to one side or another, launching any of the important hydrogens. In this way, the balloons would increase in the daytime heat every day of the crossing and fall each night, till their ballast bags were lessened, at which time the balloon and its deadly contents would descend upon whatever common underneath it.

The very first balloons were introduced in late 1944, landing in the United States on November 5th off San Pedro, California. By the following day, they landed as far as Thermopolis, Wyoming. Some even landed in Canada. In all, some 285 verified landings and sightings were made. On March 5, 1945, 6 Americans (a minister and five kids) were removed by amongst the grounded balloons in Oregon while aiming to pull it through the forest back to their camp.

The United States federal government muzzled the media about the balloons for worry of encouraging the challenge. The American public was ultimately notified of the balloons after the war.

To learn more about the Secret Weapons in the US History, watch this video:

American Civil War Spies

American Civil War Spies

The Spies in US History

There were a variety of spies who acted separately of any company. These were frequently patriotic females looking for some method to assist the war effort of their federal government. Both federal governments likewise recruited and organized their spy rings to penetrate and report on opponent activity.

Among the most famous independent American Civil War spies was Belle Boyd (above). She started her spying profession just a couple months after her seventeenth birthday, and she was introduced down that path by shooting a Union soldier for insulting her mom. True story!

Army scouts and Rangers also need to be considered. Though these guys usually served in uniform, they likewise at times participated in extensive espionage activities, such as the notorious Northwest Conspiracy.

The Northwest Conspiracy was an espionage effort led by a Confederate cavalry Captain, Thomas Hines. This plot was mostly focused on freeing scores of Confederate prisoners in the North and spread initial panic with the hope that it would influence the 1864 U. S. Presidential election.

All American Civil War spies needed to be very cautious not get captured; since the penalty for spying was death. There were a variety of males on both sides who were caught and performed as spies during the war. The first was Union spy Timothy Webster, and one of the most popular – a minimum of in the South – was Confederate “kid hero” Sam Davis.

Union and Confederate Spying
Union Spy Chief LaFayette Baker

At the outset of the war, neither side had a traditional means of gathering intelligence. The Confederacy clearly could not, since it had not truly existed in the past, and the Union didn’t honestly need spies collecting information within the Confederacy before there was a Confederacy, now did it?

Both sides worked feverishly to find out the best ways to spy out their enemies, and both had some quantity of success

There were spy rings in each of the capital cities, Washington D. C. and Richmond, sending out valuable information back to their respective governments, and each side had a variety of independent spies working for them. Some of these independent spies were under contract. However, others did their hazardous work out of love for their nation.

One extremely prominent male in the Unions espionage activities was Lafayette Baker (right).

After some exciting adventures as a Union spy, Baker went on to head his spying and counter-espionage network, working for the U. S. War Department. Baker is also the man who chaired the effective manhunt for John Wilkes Booth. Due to power struggles and other disputes, Baker fell out of favor in Washington after the war was over, but thanks to some accusatory Testaments he offered and the suspicious nature of his death, Baker has given rise to many conspiracy theories surrounding Abraham Lincoln’s assassination.

Both the Union and Confederacy saw success and failure in their espionage ventures. However, there can be no doubt that the stories of the American Civil War spies, who carried out the secret responsibilities of their federal governments, are a few of the most amazing stories of the Civil War period.

Civil War Spies

American Civil War spies were a few of the most interesting characters of the war, and there were many different people, on both sides, who had their influence on the dispute. Hopefully, we will – gradually – be able to bring their stories together here for the pleasure of all.

This list is not intended to be extensive. As we add more pages, the list will grow. Do not hesitate to contact me with recommendations for American Civil War spies to blog about in the future.

LaFayette Baker – Union spy chief, the basis of many stories and conspiracy theories.

Belle Boyd – Teenage Confederate spy, started profession by shooting Union soldier.

Rose O’Neal Greenhow – a Confederate spy in Washington and carrier to Europe.

Timothy Webster – Union spy, and the first Civil War spy to be carried out.

Mary Bowser – the Former slave, turned Union spy who infiltrated the Confederate White House.

Sam Davis – Kid Hero of the Confederacy.

Elizabeth Van Lew – Union spy chief who ran an exceptionally efficient spy ring in Richmond.

For related video about the SPIES in American Civil War History, watch this video:

Top 5 Battle of the Tanks in the World

Since the first armored vehicles crawled throughout the World War I, tanks have become an enduring component of land warfare. Many tank-on-tank engagements have occurred for many years, some more substantial– and epic– than others. Here are five you need to learn about.

Top 5 Greatest Battle of the Tanks in the History

1. The Fight of Cambrai (1917).

Fought in late 1917, this Western Front fight was the first terrific tank fight in military history and the first fantastic use of combined arms on a large scale, marking a true turning point in the history of warfare.

On November 20, 1917, the British assaulted at Cambrai with 476 tanks, 378 of them being battle tanks. The horrified Germans were captured completely by surprise as the offensive carved out a 4,000-yard penetration along a six-mile front. It was an extraordinary breakthrough in an otherwise static siege war. The Germans ultimately recuperated after introducing counter-attacks. However, the tank-led offensive showed the incredible potential of mobile, mechanized warfare. A lesson that was later applied by the Germans.

2. The Fight of Khalkhin Gol (1939).

The very first fantastic tank battle of the World War II featured the Soviet Red Army VERSUS the Japanese Imperial Army along the Mongolian and Siberian border.

The ensuing Russian encirclement allowed for the total annihilation of General Komatsubara’s force resulted in 61,000 casualties. The Red Army suffered 7,974 eliminated and 15,251 wounded. The fight marked the beginning of Zhukov’s renowned military leadership during the war while demonstrating the significance of deception, and technological and mathematical superiority in tank warfare.

3. Not to be puzzled with the 1917 Battle of Arras, this 2nd World War engagement featured the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) versus the German Blitzkrieg as it advanced quickly towards the French coast.

French cover allowed British troops to withdraw to their previous positions that night. Frankfort was over, and the next day the Germans regrouped and continued their advance.

Frankfort took around 400 German detainees and caused a comparable variety of casualties, as well as damaging some tanks. The operation had punched far beyond its weight– the attack was so intense that 7th Panzer Department thought five infantry departments had assaulted it. Interestingly, some historians believe this relentless counterattack was what persuaded the German generals to declare a halt on May 24– a short break in the Blitzkrieg that enabled the BEF some included time to evacuate its troops during the Wonder at Dunkirk.

4. The Battle of Brody (1941).

Until Kursk in 1943, this was the biggest tank battle of the Second World War and the single largest in history as much as that point. It took place in the early days of Operation Barbarossa as German soldiers advanced rapidly (and fairly quickly) along the Eastern Front.

The fight lasted four grueling days, ending on June 30, 1941, with a definite German triumph and a large Russian retreat. It was during the Fight of Brody, however, that the Germans got their first taste of the Russian T-34s– tanks that were virtually impervious to German weapons. However owing to a series of Luftwaffe aerial attacks (which ruined some 201 Soviet tanks alone) and bad tactical maneuvering, the Germans prevailed. Exactly, what’s more, it’s estimated that 50% of Soviet operational losses of armored vehicles (~ 2,600 tanks) were on account of logistical drawbacks, supply shortages, and technical problems. Total Russian tanks lost totaled up to 800, as compared with 200 German tanks lost.

5. The Second Fight of El Alamein (1942).

This battle by the North African won by the British Commonwealth forces without direct American participation. However, an American existence was most definitely felt in the form of 300 Sherman tanks (for an overall of 547 tanks) delivered hastily to Egypt from the United States.

For more information about the each Battle, stay tuned to our next Posts. Meanwhile, watch another related video about the greatest Battle of The Tanks in the History of the World here:

Role of Women during Civil War

Ever wonder what are the roles of Women during the American Civil War?

The lives of women changed significantly during the American Civil War. They played essential functions both in your house and on the battlefield. On the home front, women for both sides had to handle the household while their spouses and kids were off battling the great battles. On the battleground, ladies helped to supply the soldiers, provide medical care, and worked as spies. Some women even combated as soldiers.

Life in the house Handling Home
With many of the adult males off to war, it was up to females to manage the home by themselves. Often this included running the farms or businesses that their other halves left behind.

Raising Loan
Women also raised and solicited money for the war effort. They organize an event like raffle draws and fairs to utilized the cash to support paying for war materials.

Taking over Men’s Jobs
Lots of women took on jobs that had been typically guys’ jobs before the war. They operated in factories and in federal government positions that were left when Men left to combat. This altered the understanding of females’ functions in everyday life and helped to move the women’s rights motion in the United States of America.

Caring for Soldiers in Camp
Women also contributed looking after the soldiers while they were camped and getting ready for battle. They stitched uniforms, supplied blankets, mended shoes, washed clothes, and cooked for the soldiers.

Possibly an essential role ladies played throughout the war was providing healthcare for sick and injured soldiers. Countless ladies worked as nurses throughout the war. The Union had the most organized nursing and relief efforts organized by females such as Dorothea Dix and Clara Barton. These females fed the sick, kept their plasters clean, and helped doctors when required.

Some of the top spies for both sides throughout the Civil War were women. They were usually women who lived or worked on one side, however privately supported the opposite. They consisted of servant ladies in the South who handed down troop movements and information to the North. They likewise consisted of females in the North who supported the South and were able to persuade officers to tell them crucial information that would assist the South. Some females even ran spy rings from their homes where they would hand down info offered to them from local spies.

Females as Soldiers
Although women were not enabled to kill as soldiers, lots of ladies still handled to join the army and battle. They accomplished this by disguising themselves as men. They would cut their hair brief and wear large clothes. Since the soldiers overslept their clothing and hardly ever changed clothing or bathed, many women had the ability to stay undetected and battle alongside the men for a long time. If a lady was discovered, she was typically just sent out home without being punished.

Influential Women
There were many influential women throughout the Civil War. You can learn more about a few of them in the following biographies:

Clara Barton – Civil War nurse who developed the American Red Cross.

Dorothea Dix – Superintendant of Army Nurses for the Union. She likewise was an activist for the mentally ill.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton – She fought for completion to slavery and ladies’ rights.

Harriet Beecher Stowe – she is the author who wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin which revealed the cruelty and brutality of slavery to people in the North.

Harriet Tubman – Escaped slave who worked on the Underground Railway and later as a Union spy during the war.

Intriguing Facts about Ladies in the Civil War

Mary Walker was the only lady who formally worked as a Union medical professional during the American Civil War. She was captured once by the soldiers from South but was later freed and made the Congressional Medal of Honor.

Initially, Dorothea Dix needed that all the female nurses be over the age of 30.

The famous author Louisa May Alcott who wrote Little Women worked as a nurse for the Union.

It is estimated that over 400 ladies battled in the war as soldiers camouflaged as guys.

Clara Barton once stated that the Civil War advanced the position of females by 50 years.

For other related information, watch the video:

For more articles relating to the great American Civil War, click here.

Looking through battle of Chickamauga

The Chickamauga Study group has walked the ground lot of times, and checked out many of the stories surrounding that fateful engagement.

However, there are constantly more stories. After all, approximately 130,000 men were engaged at Chickamauga.

Walking through the battle of Chickamauga

First Georgia Cavalry Monument
This story is about 2 of those individuals– Benjamin F. Hunt and William R. Hunt, both members of Business F, the First Georgia Cavalry. They were father and kid; Benjamin was 43 at the time of the fight, his firstborn boy William, a stripling at 17.

The Hunts lived in the little community of East Armuchee Valley, Walker County, in Georgia. According to the 1860 Census, they were farmers; Benjamin, his partner Susan, five young boys and two children. In the 1860s, Armuchee was quite remote, situated in the far southeast corner of Walker County. Today it is still rather rural and among the most beautiful areas in northwest Georgia– similar to another very picturesque locale: McLemore’s Cove.

Benjamin F. Hunt enlisted in the 8th Georgia Infantry Battalion as a personal, but he was chosen to major in Might 6, 1862. He then served in that capability until he resigned on March 30, 1863. Hunt used no specific factor for his resignation, noting only that “Circumstances rendered it needed.” Most likely this indicated problems at home, though he was absent ill for a time in August 1862.

Perhaps it was because of his oldest boy, William, was likewise missing from home. William signed up with the cavalry in March 1862, in spite of being only two months past his 16th birthday. This left Susan alone at home with six children, numerous of whom were still infants or young children.

Benjamin presumably spent that summer at home in Walker County; where he would have been conscious of the looming Union intrusion of North Georgia. A male named B. F. Hunt sold a lot of oats and 120 pounds of bacon to the Confederate Army that summer, receipted at Dalton and Catoosa, respectively.

Exactly what is known that he re-enlisted for “three years or the war” on August 4, 1863; signing up with the 1st Georgia Cavalry, then stationed at Sweetwater Tennessee– about midway in between Chattanooga and Knoxville. He registered in Business F, together with his kid, as a personal.

Benjamin might have simply as quickly signed up with among the home-guard cavalry business that was being called into service that August, addressing the Governor’s mobilization order; numerous such were organized in Walker County.

On September 19, the First Georgia was serving in Davidson’s (till just recently, John Pegram’s) Brigade of Forrest’s Cavalry Corps. Davidson’s command included the 10th Confederate, First and 6th Georgia, Sixth North Carolina, and Rucker’s Tennessee Legion; all cavalry. Many of the 1st Georgia was dispatched not to face Croxton, however up the Reed’s Bridge Road to deploy as skirmishers against Ferdinand Van Derveer’s Federal brigade. The First Georgia numbered about 295 men that day; they suffered ten recognized casualties. Three men were eliminated, seven wounded. Benjamin Hunt was among the wounded, which proved mortal. He passed away that night.

On September 20th, 17-year old William brought his father’s body home, a 42-mile journey from Jay’s Mill to Armuchee. Susan’s subsequent pension application mentioned that Benjamin’s body was “pierced through and bloody.” He was buried in the family cemetery in Villanow, Georgia.

William made it through the war but by the only couple of years. He died in 1870, aged 24; of consumption.

Susan lived until 1899, survived by only 3 of her seven kids.

Weapons Used in the American Civil War

The Cannon
The 1861 Cannon

During the Cold War, the Cannons were hefty and very challenging to move. The largest that was used needed a group of 16 horses to transport them. In a normal occasion, a smaller cannon was used, but even the smallest required at least four guys to move them. For this factor, they needed to be taken into position before a battle began. The rockets fired from the cannon were usually balls of iron, but in some cases, stones were used. After firing the cannon, soldiers will go away and start running. It needed to go through a strict treatment of cleansing, packing the weapon and filling the gunpowder before it might be fired again. Intending was tough, and the cannon was more effective as a means of instilling fear into the enemy than actually triggering damage.

The Mortar

The Mortar Weapon civil war
This gadget is easy to maneuver and can be utilized by one man alone. An explosive shell is fired high into the air and takes off on impact. Although it was challenging to aim, this weapon was the most destructive of those utilized in the Civil War.

The Musket
There were two kinds of a musket; the matchlock and the flintlock, which could be as long as 5 feet and had a firing range of up to 300 lawns. They were both loaded in the same method; first, pour the gunpowder into the barrel and using a hard stick, pressing it inside.
Followed by wadding with the lead ball inside to hold the ball tight.

To fire the matchlock which is the most common kind of musket, the soldier must place the gunpowder into a covered container to preserve it. He would then press a lighted piece of flax into a metal trigger called the serpent. The lighted flax in the serpent naturally would come down into the pan, and light the gunpowder, after firing the weapon. The fire of this would then enter the barrel of the gun. The gunpowder is going to fire leading the lead ball to be fired.
The muskets of the civil war

To fire the flintlock was somewhat easier, however, more costly. The pan would be filled out the very same way however the serpent consisted of a piece of flint. The trigger is caused when flint was struck by the pan that ignites the gunpowder.
Both weapons threatened and awkward to use. A few of the longer muskets required a rest to stabilize the barrel on because they were too heavy to hold. They were difficult to refill quickly and were most reliable when a group of musketeers fired a volley of chance ats the enemy.

The Pike

Dug out Civil War Pikes
The Pike was among the most frequently utilized weapons on the Civil War battlefield. The Pike was a long wooden shaft with a steel point on end. They were cheap to make; soldiers required little training to utilize them, and they could be extremely effective when utilized in a group. Pikes should be up to sixteen feet in length however typically soldiers sawed a couple of feet off completions to make them simpler to bring.
The Pikemen frequently formed the cutting edge of an army.

If you want to learned more about the civil War Weapons, watch this video

The Early Civil War Submarines

Civil War Submarines sound kind of out of place, don’t they? We all know that subs are from a 20th-century, right? In early painting depicted in 16th century from the Islamic, the first submarine was used by Alexander the Great. They said Alexander uses a primitive submersible in a diving bell form. Although the first prototype of submarines was recorded in 1578 by an Englishman William Bourne, many Mathematicians and Scientists tried to build the submarine from a scratch.

Subs have a long and rather interesting history… 

While no one can really confirm if Alexander the Great’s Islamic painting is true, the idea was said to have started there. The painting showed that Alexander was being lowered by a glass submersible.
Alexander the great being lowered in a glass submersiblePhoto from Wikipedia

In 1623, Cornelius Drebbel – working for King James I of England – supervise the building of what is supposed to be the very first working submarine. According to accounts from that period, it appeared to be a big enclosed rowboat using twelve sailors for propulsion. It’s believed to cross the Thames River submerged at a depth of about 15 feet. Some said that James I took a trip in Drebbel’s submarine. Historians nevertheless, view such claims rather doubtfully.

Over the next 150 years or so numerous people made numerous submarines for different functions. These were tested with differing levels of success …

In the mid-1600s the “Rotterdam Boat” was developed by the Netherlands to be used versus the British, however, failed because its propulsion system was not enough to power the boat.

In the 1700s, John Day successfully developed a small sub he utilized to immerse in shallow water. Nevertheless, he then upped the ante. He and a gambler began taking bets on the length of time he might stay engaged in the middle of Plymouth Noise. It is assumed that his submarine gave up under the higher pressure in the much deeper water. Day, therefore, became the first tape-recorded “death by submarine.”

Lastly, in 1776, during the American Transformation, a submarine was used to assault an opponent ship. The TURTLE as the sub was called, was constructed by David Bushnell and was steered by Ezra Lee of the Continental Army. Lee piloted the Turtle under the British flagship HMS Eagle and attempted to attach a big explosive charge to the bottom of the ship but was not successful. George Washington personally praised Lee on his survival and later on offered him employment on secret service.

There were a lot more experiments and developments over the next 80 plus years, but when the American Civil War came along submarine advancement got kicked up a notch.

Lets not forget the H.L. Hunley – the CONFEDERATE submarine, the first Submarine in the history of NAVAL WARFARE TO SINK AN ENEMY ship. A 40 feet long and needs 9 Men to operate.

It blew up on Feb 17, 1864 that sank the USS Housatonic Ship that was blockading Charles Harbor. Of 160 enlisted men, only 5 men died. They lowered two boats before its too late and saved many men.

Did you know that it was found in 1995 and was brought back in 2005 at St Catherine’s Academy in Anaheim? For more stories, watch this video:

Have a look at the Blog Sections for even more amazing Civil War Stories!