INNOVATION AND INDUSTRIALIZATION
The textile market, in particular, was transformed by industrialization. Before mechanization and factories, textiles were made in individuals’ houses (triggering the term home market), with merchants often supplying the raw materials and fundamental devices, and after that picking up the completed item. Employees set their schedules under this system, which proved hard for merchants to manage and resulted in numerous inefficiencies. In the 1700s, a series of developments resulted in ever-increasing efficiency, while needing less human energy. For instance, around 1764, Englishman James Hargreaves (1722-1778) invented the spinning jenny (” Jenny” was an early abbreviation of the word “engine”), a maker that allowed a private to produce numerous spools of threads simultaneously. By the time of Hargreaves’ death, there was over 20,000 spinning jenny in use across Britain. The spinning jenny was improved upon by British innovator Samuel Compton’s (1753-1827) spinning mule, in addition to later makers. Another essential development in fabrics, the power loom, which mechanized the process of weaving cloth, was developed in the 1780s by English inventor Edmund Cartwright (1743-1823).
Iron industry likewise played a central function in the Industrial Revolution. In the early 18th century, Englishman Abraham Darby (1678-1717) discovered a more affordable, more accessible technique to produce cast iron, using a coke-fueled (as opposed to charcoal-fired) furnace. In the 1850s, British engineer Henry Bessemer (1813-1898) developed the first economic procedure for mass-producing steel. Both iron and steel ended up being essential products, used to make everything from home appliances, tools, and devices, to ships, structures and infrastructure.
The steam engine was also crucial to industrialization. In 1712, Englishman Thomas Newcomen (1664-1729) developed the first practical steam engine (which was used primarily to pump water out of mines). By the 1770s, Scottish creator James Watt (1736-1819) had improved on Newcomen’s work, and the steam engine went on to power equipment, engines, and ships during the Industrial Revolution.